Strategies to overcome differences in terminology


  • Will Pushman Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, USA


adjustment, borrowing, calque, equivalence, literal translation, modulation, transposition


Bell (1991:71) reveals that there are seven methods used in translating terms, namely borrowing, loan translation (calque), literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence, and adjustment.


Abrevaya, J. (1997). The equivalence of two estimators of the fixed-effects logit model. Economics Letters, 55(1), 41-43.

Acquadro, C., Kopp, Z., Coyne, K. S., Corcos, J., Tubaro, A., & Choo, M. S. (2006). Translating overactive bladder questionnaires in 14 languages. Urology, 67(3), 536-540.

Azzeh, M., Nassif, A. B., & Minku, L. L. (2015). An empirical evaluation of ensemble adjustment methods for analogy-based effort estimation. Journal of Systems and Software, 103, 36-52.

Crepaldi, D., Berlingeri, M., Paulesu, E., & Luzzatti, C. (2011). A place for nouns and a place for verbs? A critical review of neurocognitive data on grammatical-class effects. Brain and Language, 116(1), 33-49.

D Gregorio, J. (1996). Borrowing constraints, human capital accumulation, and growth. Journal of Monetary Economics, 37(1), 49-71.

DeVries, A. C., Glasper, E. R., & Detillion, C. E. (2003). Social modulation of stress responses. Physiology & behavior, 79(3), 399-407.

Dobrzyńska, T. (1995). Translating metaphor: Problems of meaning. Journal of pragmatics, 24(6), 595-604.

Domej, D., & Floden, M. (2006). The labor-supply elasticity and borrowing constraints: Why estimates are biased. Review of Economic dynamics, 9(2), 242-262.

Du, W. S. (2010). A note on cone metric fixed point theory and its equivalence. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, 72(5), 2259-2261.

Goel, V., & Dolan, R. J. (2003). Explaining modulation of reasoning by belief. Cognition, 87(1), B11-B22.

Horodecki, P. (1997). Separability criterion and inseparable mixed states with positive partial transposition. Physics Letters A, 232(5), 333-339.

Jalali, N., Razmi, H., & Doagou-Mojarrad, H. (2020). Optimized fuzzy self-tuning PID controller design based on Tribe-DE optimization algorithm and rule weight adjustment method for load frequency control of interconnected multi-area power systems. Applied Soft Computing, 93, 106424.

Mintz, T. H. (2003). Frequent frames as a cue for grammatical categories in child directed speech. Cognition, 90(1), 91-117.

Molinaro, N., Barber, H. A., & Carreiras, M. (2011). Grammatical agreement processing in reading: ERP findings and future directions. cortex, 47(8), 908-930.

Savickas, M. L., & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of vocational behavior, 80(3), 661-673.

Schäffner, C. (2004). Metaphor and translation: some implications of a cognitive approach. Journal of pragmatics, 36(7), 1253-1269.

Shi, R., Werker, J. F., & Morgan, J. L. (1999). Newborn infants’ sensitivity to perceptual cues to lexical and grammatical words. Cognition, 72(2), B11-B21.

Sperber, A. D. (2004). Translation and validation of study instruments for cross-cultural research. Gastroenterology, 126, S124-S128.

Stone, J. C., Glass, K., Munn, Z., Tugwell, P., & Doi, S. A. (2020). Comparison of bias adjustment methods in meta-analysis suggests that quality effects modeling may have less limitations than other approaches. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 117, 36-45.

Storch, N. (1999). Are two heads better than one? Pair work and grammatical accuracy. System, 27(3), 363-374.

Van der Lely, H. K., & Stollwerck, L. (1997). Binding theory and grammatical specific language impairment in children. Cognition, 62(3), 245-290.



How to Cite

Pushman, W. (2022). Strategies to overcome differences in terminology. Applied Translation, 16(1), 1–6.



Regular Issue Articles